- Maths is not just about number recognition and adding and taking away. It’s also about shape, pattern, space, measurements and solving real-life problems.
- Songs and rhymes help with mathematical concepts of beat, meter, duration of sounds, tempo and rhythmic patterns as well as counting.
- It’s important to talk about the characteristics of different shapes rather than just naming them. That includes regular, irregular, 2D and 3D shapes.
- Estimating, guessing, and solving real-life mathematical problems help children’s confidence as well as consolidating their knowledge of mathematical concepts.
What does this mean for me?
So much of our everyday lives include maths on some level, whether that’s shopping, telling the time, cooking, doing crafts, budgeting and solving problems, for example, how much to increase the ingredients if the recipe is for four people and we’re planning a meal for six.
It’s important to practice skills in number, shape and problem solving from the beginning of a child’s life. A baby can understand shape and size from stacking bricks and can understand the concept of all gone or nothing left when they’ve eaten all the food on their plate.
Think out loud
Being confident with numbers and thinking aloud when counting or working out a maths problem such as how much something costs in a shop will help the children’s understanding of numbers. When you can, use mathematical words such as longest, shortest, longer than, more than, fewer than, all gone, and none, heavier, lighter. This is a good opportunity to use Welsh language too, if you live in Wales.
Also, allow children time and space to work things out themselves when you pose them a problem, and ask them to show you how they worked it out. This will help with their confidence and mathematical development.
Value mathematical graphics
Provide resources for imaginative play that encourage making mathematical graphics, for example, calendars, cheque books, birthday cards, petty cash receipts, raffle tickets, recipes, and maps. Taking a register and looking at clocks also include number recognition.
Out and about
An outdoor space at your setting or going out and about on a walk provides lots of opportunities to explore patterns and collections, and the space to actively explore shapes and numbers.
Take a look at all the different patterns in nature, or take pre-school children on a shape walk, encouraging them to point out all the shapes they can see. Look at paving stones, road signs, drain covers, brick walls, park benches, and lamposts.
Empty food boxes and containers provide a great opportunity to experiment with how shapes fit together. Give the children some flattened boxes so that they can see the relationship between 2D and 3D. Providing a big pile of materials and encouraging the children to sort them into categories that they decide upon also helps with maths, as grouping and matching is an important skill.
Songs and rhyme
Listening to music, clapping and tapping along, dancing and joining in with action counting rhymes such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Once I Caught a Fish Alive or Ten Green Bottles all help with mathematical development as they become familiar with rhythm, whether a song is fast or slow and whether the sound is long or short.
Plan a series of activities exploring numbers, shapes and problem solving for the children in your setting, taking into account their ages, stages of development and current interests. Experiment with encouraging children to solve mathematical problems, giving them time and space to collaborate and come back to them if they don’t solve them straight away.
PACEY Professional Standards
Planning activities to support numbers, shapes and problem solving will help you meet this standard: C1.1 Organise activities, routines and experiences to promote children’s development by showing that you have ideas for activities and experiences and that you can adapt them to suit children’s needs and interests as required.
Planning a wide range of enjoyable and stimulating maths (including numbers, shapes and problem solving) activities and experiences will help you meet this standard: C1.2 Organise activities, routines and experiences to promote children’s development by taking into account each child’s interest and individual learning, play and development needs as well as taking into account the expectations of parents and carers.
Frameworks and Legislation
Early Years Foundation Stage Framework, Department for Education (2012)
Early Years Outcomes, Department for Education (2013)
Foundation Phase Framework, Welsh Government (2015)
Mathematical Development, Welsh Government (2008)
National Literacy and Numeracy Framework, Welsh Government (2013)
Numbers, Shapes, and Problem-Solving Practice Guide, PACEY
NRICH Enriching mathematics – lots of mathematical games, problems and resources set up by Cambridge University.