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NEWS: Extreme heat guidance (Wales)/Canllawiau gwres llethol (Cymru)

Darllenwch hyn yn Gymraeg yma.  Read this in Welsh here.

Given the extreme heat that Wales again is set to experience this week, Public Health Wales have provided advice for those working with children in extreme heat conditions.   

Public Health Wales provide advice on those children who may be most vulnerable, as well as outlining steps to take both indoors and outdoors to protect all children from the sun.

Children should never be left alone in cars - not even for a minute, as car temperatures can rise very rapidly.

Settings should ensure they are familiar with the signs of heat exhaustion and heat stroke, as well as the steps to take should anyone in their setting show signs of heat stroke or heat exhaustion. Heat stroke should always be treated as an emergency.

Health risks from heat

Children cannot control their body temperature as efficiently as adults during hot weather because they do not sweat as much and so can be at risk of ill-health from heat. Heat- related illness can range from mild heat stress to potentially life-threatening heatstroke. The main risk from heat is dehydration (not having enough water in the body). If sensible precautions are taken children are unlikely to be adversely affected by hot conditions, however, teachers, assistants, school nurses and all child carers should look out for signs of heat stress, heat exhaustion and heatstroke.

Heat stress

Children suffering from heat stress may seem out of character or show signs of discomfort and irritability (including those listed below for heat exhaustion). These signs will worsen with physical activity and if left untreated can lead to heat exhaustion or heatstroke.

Heat exhaustion

Symptoms of heat exhaustion vary but include one or more of the following:

  • tiredness
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • hot, red and dry skin
  • confusion

Heatstroke

When the body is exposed to very high temperatures, the mechanism that controls body temperature may stop working. Heatstroke can develop if heat stress or heat exhaustion is left untreated, but it can also occur suddenly and without warning.

Symptoms of heatstroke may include:

  • high body temperature – a temperature of or above 40°C (104°F) is a major sign of heatstroke
  • red, hot skin and sweating that then suddenly stops
  • fast heartbeat
  • fast shallow breathing
  • confusion/lack of co-ordination
  • fits
  • loss of consciousness

Actions to protect children suffering from heat illness

The following steps to reduce body temperature should be taken immediately:

  1. Move the child to as cool a room as possible and encourage them to drink cool water (such as water from a cold tap).
  2. Cool the child as rapidly as possible, using whatever methods you can. For example, sponge or spray the child with cool (25 to 30°C) water – if available, place cold packs around the neck and armpits, or wrap the child in a cool, wet sheet and assist cooling with a fan.
  3. Dial 999 to request an ambulance if the person doesn’t respond to the above treatment within 30 minutes.
  4. If a child loses consciousness, or has a fit, place the child in the recovery position, call 999 immediately and follow the steps above until medical assistance arrives

Children’s susceptibility to high temperatures varies; those who are overweight or who are taking medication may be at increased risk of adverse effects. Children under four years of age are also at increased risk. Some children with disabilities or complex health needs may be more susceptible to temperature extremes. The school nurse, community health practitioner, family health visitor or the child’s specialist health professional may be able to advise on the particular needs of the individual child.
 
Outdoors:

  • On very hot days (30oC+), children should not take part in vigorous physical activity
  • Children playing outdoors should be encouraged to stay in the shade as much as possible
  • Loose, light-coloured clothing should be worn to help children keep cool and hats of a closed construction with wide brims should be worn to avoid sunburn
  • Thin clothing or sun cream should be used to protect skin if children are playing or taking lessons outdoors for more than 20 minutes. Choose a sunscreen that is specially formulated for babies and children’s skin as these products are less likely to contain alcohol or fragrances that might irritate the skin and cause allergic reactions
  • Children must be provided with plenty of cool water and encouraged to drink more than usual when conditions are hot

Indoors:

  • Windows and other ventilation openings should be opened during the cool of early morning or preferably overnight to allow stored heat to escape from the building. Check insurance conditions and the need for security if windows are to be left open overnight
  • Windows and other ventilation openings should not be closed, but their openings reduced when the outdoor air becomes warmer than the air indoors. This should help keep rooms cool whilst allowing adequate ventilation
  • Use outdoor sun covers/awnings if available, or indoor blinds, but do not let solar shading devices block ventilation openings or windows
  • Keep the use of electric lighting to a minimum
  • All electrical equipment, including computers, monitors and printers should be switched off when not in use and should not be left in ‘standby mode’. Electrical equipment, when left on, or in ‘standby’ mode generates heat

Ensure any activities or events you have planned in the next 14 days take account of additional mitigations you may require to keep everyone safe. 

Please also be alert to the met office weather warnings and quality in Wales air pollution forecast.  

If you have any queries please email paceycymru@pacey.org.uk

 

O ystyried y gwres eithafol y bydd Cymru’n profi’r wythnos hon, mae Iechyd Cyhoeddus Cymru wedi cyhoeddi cyngor i’r rhai sy’n gweithio gyda phlant mewn amodau gwres llethol.

Mae Iechyd Cyhoeddus Cymru yn rhoi cyngor ar y plant hynny a allai fod fwyaf agored i niwed, yn ogystal ag amlinellu camau i fynd dan do ac yn yr awyr agored i amddiffyn pob plentyn rhag yr haul.

Ni ddylai plant byth gael eu gadael ar eu pennau eu hunain mewn ceir - nid hyd yn oed am funud, gan y gall tymheredd y car godi'n gyflym iawn.

Dylai lleoliadau sicrhau eu bod yn gyfarwydd ag arwyddion blinder gwres a strôc gwres, yn ogystal â'r camau i'w cymryd pe bai unrhyw un yn eu lleoliad yn dangos arwyddion o strôc gwres neu flinder gwres.  Dylid trin strôc gwres fel argyfwng bob amser.

Risgiau iechyd o wres

Ni all plant reoli tymheredd eu corff mor effeithlon ag oedolion yn ystod tywydd poeth gan nad ydynt yn chwysu cymaint ac felly gallant wynebu risg o afiechyd o wres. Gall salwch sy'n gysylltiedig â gwres amrywio o straen gwres ysgafn i drawiad gwres sy'n gallu bygwth bywyd. Y brif risg o wres yw dadhydradu (dim digon o ddŵr yn y corff). Os cymerir rhagofalon synhwyrol, mae amodau poeth yn annhebygol o effeithio'n andwyol ar blant. Fodd bynnag, dylai athrawon, cynorthwywyr, nyrsys ysgol a phob gofalwr plant gadw llygad am arwyddion straen gwres, gorludded gwres a thrawiad gwres.

Straen gwres

Efallai y bydd plant sy'n dioddef o straen gwres yn ymddangos allan o gymeriad neu'n dangos arwyddion o anesmwythyd ac anniddigrwydd (gan gynnwys y rhai a restrir isod ar gyfer gorludded gwres). Bydd yr arwyddion hyn yn gwaethygu wrth wneud gweithgarwch corfforol ac os na chânt eu trin gallant arwain at orludded gwres neu drawiad gwres.

Gorludded gwres

Mae symptomau gorludded gwres yn amrywio ond maent yn cynnwys un neu fwy o'r canlynol:

  • blinder
  • pendro
  • pen tost/cur pen
  • cyfog
  • chwydu
  • croen poeth, coch a sych
  • dryswch

Trawiad gwres

Pan fydd y corff yn dod i gysylltiad â thymheredd uchel iawn, gall y dull sy'n rheoli tymheredd y corff beidio â gweithio. Gall trawiad gwres ddatblygu os caiff straen gwres neu orludded gwres eu gadael heb eu trin, ond gall hefyd ddigwydd yn sydyn a heb rybudd.

Gall symptomau trawiad gwres gynnwys:

  • tymheredd y corff uchel – mae tymheredd o 40°C (104°F) neu uwch yn arwydd mawr o drawiad gwres
  • croen coch, poeth a chwysu sydd wedyn yn dod i ben yn sydyn
  • curiad calon cyflym
  • anadlu bas cyflym
  • dryswch/diffyg cydsymud
  • ffitiau
  • colli ymwybyddiaeth

Camau gweithredu i ddiogelu plant sy'n dioddef o salwch gwres

Dylid cymryd y camau canlynol i leihau tymheredd y corff ar unwaith:

  1. Symudwch y plentyn i ystafell sydd mor oer â phosibl a'i annog i yfed dŵr oer (fel dŵr o dap oer).
  2. Oerwch y plentyn mor gyflym â phosibl, gan ddefnyddio pa ddulliau bynnag y gallwch. Er enghraifft, defnyddiwch sbwnj neu chwistrellwch y plentyn â dŵr oer (25 i 30°C) – os ydynt ar gael, rhowch baciau oer o amgylch y gwddf a'r ceseiliau, neu lapiwch y plentyn mewn cynfas oer, wlyb a defnyddio gwyntyll er mwyn helpu i'w oeri.
  3. Ffoniwch 999 i ofyn am ambiwlans os nad yw'r person yn ymateb i'r driniaeth uchod o fewn 30 munud.
  4. Os bydd y plentyn yn colli ymwybyddiaeth, neu os yw'n cael ffit, rhowch y plentyn yn yr ystum adfer, ffoniwch 999 ar unwaith a dilynwch y camau uchod nes i gymorth meddygol gyrraedd

Mae derbynnedd plant i dymheredd uchel yn amrywio; gallai’r rheiny sy’n ordrwm neu sy’n cymryd meddyginiaeth fod â mwy o risg o effeithiau niweidiol. Mae plant dan bedair oer hefyd mewn mwy o berygl. Gallai rhai plant sydd ag anableddau neu anghenion iechyd cymhleth fod yn fwy tueddol o ddioddef oherwydd eithafion tymheredd. Mae’n bosib y gall y nyrs ysgol, ymarferwyr iechyd cymunedol, ymwelydd iechyd teuluol neu weithiwr iechyd arbenigol y plentyn roi cyngor ar anghenion penodol y plentyn.
 
Yn yr awyr agored:

  • Ar ddyddiau poeth iawn (e.e. tymheredd dros 30°C) ni ddylai plant gymryd rhan mewn gweithgaredd corfforol egnïol 
  • Dylid annog plant sy’n chwarae yn yr awyr agored aros yn y cysgod cymaint ag sydd bosib 
  • Dylid gwisgo dillad llac, golau i helpu plant i gadw’n oer braf a hetiau sydd â gwneuthuriad clos â chantel llydan i osgoi llosg haul 
  • Dylid defnyddio dillad tenau neu hufen haul i amddiffyn y croen os bydd plant yn chwarae neu’n cael gwersi yn yr awyr agored am fwy nag 20 munud.  Dewiswch hylif gwrth-haul sydd wedi ei wneud yn arbennig ar gyfer croen babanod a phlant gan fod y cynhyrchion hyn yn llai tebygol o gynnwys alcohol neu bersawr a allai beri cosi poenus i’r croen ac adwaith alergaidd 
  • Mae’n rhaid darparu plant â digon o ddŵr claear a’u hannog i yfed mwy nag arfer pan fydd hi’n boeth

 
Dan do:

  • Dylid agor ffenestri ac agorfeydd awyriad eraill yn ystod tymhered claear cynnar y bore neu’n well fyth dros nos i ganiatau i’r gwres sydd wedi’i storio ddianc o’r adeilad. Gwiriwch amodau yswiriant a’r angen am ddiogelwch os yw ffenestri i’w gadael yn agored dros nos 
  • Ni ddylid cau ffenestri ac agorfeydd awyru eraill, ond dylid lleihau’r agoriadau pan ddaw’r aer y tu allan yn gynhesach na’r hyn ydyw dan do.  Dylai hynny helpu i gadw ystafelloedd yn glaear wrth ganiatau awyriad digonol 
  • Defnyddiwch orchuddion haul awyr agored/cysgodlenni os oes rhai ar gael, neu fleindiau tu mewn, ond peidiwch â gadael i ddyfeisiadau cysgodi solar flocio agoriadau awyru na ffenestri 
  • Defnyddiwch cyn lleied ag sydd bosib o oleuadau trydan 
  • Dylid diffodd pob offer trydanol, yn cynnwys cyfrifiaduron, monitors ac argraffwyr pan na fyddan nhw’n cael eu defnyddio ac ni ddylid eu gadael yn y ‘modd segur’. Bydd offer trydanol, o’u gadael ymlaen neu yn y ‘modd segur’ yn cynhyrchu gwres

Sicrhau bod unrhyw weithgareddau neu ddigwyddiadau yr ydych wedi'u cynllunio yn ystod y 14 diwrnod nesaf yn ystyried mesurau lliniaru ychwanegol y gallai fod eu hangen arnoch i gadw pawb yn ddiogel.

Byddwch yn effro hefyd i rybuddion tywydd y Swyddfa Dywydd ac ansawdd rhagolygon llygredd aer Cymru

Os oes gennych unrhyw ymholiadau anfonwch e-bost paceycymru@pacey.org.uk