Role of the adult / Rôl yr oedolyn

Darllenwch hyn yn Gymraeg yma.  Read this in Welsh here

Play opportunities and environments that promote play, exploration and hands-on learning are at the core of the curriculum in Wales. Practitioners can support or ’scaffold’ children’s learning through providing responsive environments. 

The importance of adult intervention to support or ‘scaffold’ learning and enable a child to make progress is a well-known concept in childcare and early years. In order to scaffold effectively you need to be aware of what the child already knows in order to build on it. Scaffolding often takes the form of a dialogue between the adult and child but it can be about an adult recognising that the introduction of new resources to enhance an area or activity, usually following observation and planning, can support children to develop.

In Wales, the Learning and Teaching Pedagogy guidance states that the reflective Foundation Phase practitioner will have skills and knowledge of how to provide the best learning environments and experiences to motivate children and stimulate their learning. The PACEY practice guide on approaches to learning has further information on how different approaches to learning have influenced childcare and early years practice over the years.

In the National Minimum Standards standard 7.2 states there is an expectation on providers to ensure that 'resources used and play opportunities, first-hand experiences, and activities provided aid children’s development and build on their natural curiosity'. 

Child led and adult led activities

‘Child initiated events and activities arise when children choose freely from their learning environment – indoors and out – and select and organise resources, picking their own companions on the way.’ Lindon (2010)

Adult led activities are activities that are chosen by adults to encourage an aspect of learning, or in relation to a particular interest of the child.

The curriculum in Wales states that there must be a balance between structured learning through child-initiated activities and those directed by adults.

The adult has a role to play in creating an environment for children that supports both child initiated and adult led activities.

Find out more on this subject in the PACEY practice guide Child-initiated play and adult-led activities.

Observations and assessments

To be able to plan challenging and enjoyable experiences for children that help them make progress, you need to know the child well and consider the environment in which they are learning and developing. The child is central to any planning that takes place.  You need to consider the child’s individual needs and interests and know where they are in their stage of development.

Evaluate constantly what is happening, using these evaluations to plan and carry out further observations.

Think about what you are observing to inform planning and development of your environment.

  • What the child enjoys doing – the types of activities, experiences and areas they seek out both inside and outside.
  • Who the child plays and interacts with but also other children may seek out the child you are observing.
  • How the child manages with certain activities and opportunities. Is the child curious? Do they use their initiative? Have they the confidence to seek out challenge?
  • How long do children persevere and/or concentrate on particular activities or do they ‘flit’ from one activity to another?
  • Are there any ‘triggers’ for certain types of behaviour that sometimes manifest themselves?
  • Note down those ‘wow’ moments. Sometimes, children do the most unexpected things and these should be noted down.

All observations should be available for parents to see and share.  Use your observations to support your work in developing your environments.  You can also consider;

  • What have you noticed that the child can do? What stage of development is the child at? What does the child need to help them progress?
  • Will you provide resources and plan the environment so that the child can make choices and initiate their own play based on their interests or will you provide an adult- initiated activity to support the child?
  • Do the activities take place outside as well as inside?
  • What will the adult’s role be?

PACEY has a number of resources for members in relation to observation, assessment and planning.  There are also short training resources within CEY smart that are helpful for you to understand the role you have to play.

Further reading

PACEY- Practice guide, Approaches to learning

PACEY Practice guide Child-initiated play and adult-led activities.

PACEY- Practice guide, Observation, assessment and planning

Child Initiated Learning. Lindon 2010. Practical Pre-School Books.

Foundation Phase Framework. Welsh Government, 2015

Learning and Teaching Pedagogy.  Welsh Government, 2008

Learning through play: Strengthening learning through play in early childhood education programmes.   Unicef, 2018.

National Minimum Standards for Regulated Childcare for children up to 12 years of age

 

Mae cyfleoedd chwarae ac amgylcheddau sy'n hyrwyddo chwarae, archwilio a dysgu ymarferol wrth wraidd y cwricwlwm yng Nghymru. Gall ymarferwyr gefnogi neu ‘sgaffaldio’ dysgu plant drwy ddarparu amgylcheddau ymatebol. 

Mae pwysigrwydd ymyrraeth oedolion i gefnogi neu 'sgaffaldio’ dysgu a galluogi plentyn i wneud cynnydd yn gysyniad adnabyddus mewn gofal plant a blynyddoedd cynnar. Er mwyn sgaffaldio'n effeithiol mae angen i chi fod yn ymwybodol o'r hyn y mae'r plentyn yn ei wybod eisoes er mwyn datblygu arno. Mae sgaffaldio'n aml ar ffurf deialog rhwng yr oedolyn a'r plentyn ond gall fod yn ymwneud ag oedolyn yn cydnabod y gall cyflwyno adnoddau newydd i wella ardal neu weithgaredd, fel arfer yn dilyn arsylwi a chynllunio, gynorthwyo plant i ddatblygu.

Yng Nghymru, mae'r canllaw Addysgeg Dysgu ac Addysgu yn nodi y bydd gan yr ymarferydd Cyfnod Sylfaenol myfyriol sgiliau a gwybodaeth am sut i ddarparu'r amgylcheddau a'r profiadau dysgu gorau i ysgogi plant a’u dysgu. Mae gan ganllaw ymarfer PACEY ar ymagweddau at ddysgu wybodaeth bellach ar sut mae gwahanol ddulliau o ddysgu wedi dylanwadu ar ofal plant ac ymarfer blynyddoedd cynnar dros y blynyddoedd.

Yn y Safonau Gofynnol Cenedlaethol, mae safon 7.2 yn nodi bod disgwyl i ddarparwyr sicrhau bod 'adnoddau a ddefnyddir a chyfleoedd chwarae, profiadau uniongyrchol, a gweithgareddau a ddarperir yn cynorthwyo datblygiad plant ac yn datblygu ar eu chwilfrydedd naturiol'. 

Gweithgareddau dan arweiniad plant a dan arweiniad oedolion

‘Mae digwyddiadau a gweithgareddau a gychwynnir gan blant yn codi pan fydd plant yn dewis yn rhydd o’u hamgylchedd dysgu – y tu mewn a’r tu allan – ac yn dewis a threfnu adnoddau, gan ddewis eu cymdeithion eu hunain ar y ffordd.’  Lindon (2010)

Mae gweithgareddau a arweinir gan oedolion yn weithgareddau a ddewisir gan oedolion i annog agwedd ar ddysgu, neu mewn perthynas â diddordeb penodol y plentyn.

Mae'r cwricwlwm yng Nghymru yn nodi bod yn rhaid cael cydbwysedd rhwng dysgu strwythuredig drwy weithgareddau a gychwynnir gan blant a'r rhai a gyfarwyddir gan oedolion.

Mae gan yr oedolyn rôl i'w chwarae wrth greu amgylchedd i blant sy'n cefnogi gweithgareddau a gychwynnir gan blant ac a arweinir gan oedolion.

Gallwch ddysgu rhagor am y pwnc hwn yng nghanllaw ymarfer PACEY Chwarae a gychwynnir gan blant a gweithgareddau dan arweiniad oedolion.

Arsylwadau ac asesiadau

Er mwyn gallu cynllunio profiadau heriol a difyr ar gyfer plant sy'n eu helpu i wneud cynnydd, mae angen i chi adnabod y plentyn yn dda ac ystyried yr amgylchedd y mae'n dysgu ac yn datblygu ynddo. Mae'r plentyn yn ganolog i unrhyw gynllunio sy'n digwydd.  Mae angen i chi ystyried anghenion a diddordebau unigol y plentyn a gwybod ble mae yn ei gam datblygu.

Gwerthuswch yn gyson yr hyn sy'n digwydd, gan ddefnyddio'r gwerthusiadau hyn i gynllunio a chynnal arsylwadau pellach.

Meddyliwch am yr hyn rydych yn arsylwi arno i lywio cynllunio a datblygu eich amgylchedd.

  • Yr hyn y mae'r plentyn yn mwynhau ei wneud – y mathau o weithgareddau, profiadau a meysydd y maen nhw'n chwilio amdanyn nhw y tu mewn a'r tu allan.
  • Gyda phwy mae'r plentyn yn chwarae ac yn rhyngweithio ond hefyd gall plant eraill chwilio am y plentyn rydych chi'n arsylwi arno.
  • Sut mae'r plentyn yn deilio â gweithgareddau a chyfleoedd penodol. Ydy'r plentyn yn chwilfrydig? Ydy'n defnyddio ei fenter ei hun? Oes ganddo'r hyder i geisio her?
  • Pa mor hir mae plant yn dyfalbarhau a/neu'n canolbwyntio ar weithgareddau penodol neu ydyn nhw'n 'fflitio' o un gweithgaredd i'r llall?
  • A oes unrhyw ‘sbardunau’ ar gyfer rhai mathau o ymddygiad sydd weithiau’n amlygu eu hunain?
  • Nodwch yr eiliadau ‘waw’ hynny. Weithiau, mae plant yn gwneud y pethau mwyaf annisgwyl a dylid nodi'r rhain i lawr.

Dylai'r holl arsylwadau fod ar gael i rieni eu gweld a'u rhannu.  Defnyddiwch eich arsylwadau i gefnogi'ch gwaith wrth ddatblygu eich amgylcheddau.  Gallwch hefyd ystyried;

  • Beth ydych chi wedi sylwi y gall y plentyn ei wneud? Ym mha gam datblygu y mae'r plentyn? Beth sydd ei angen ar y plentyn i'w helpu i symud ymlaen?
  • A fyddwch chi’n darparu adnoddau a chynllunio'r amgylchedd fel y gall y plentyn wneud dewisiadau a chychwyn ei chwarae ei hun yn seiliedig ar ei ddiddordebau neu fyddwch chi'n darparu gweithgaredd a gychwynnir gan oedolyn i gefnogi'r plentyn?
  • A yw'r gweithgareddau'n cael eu cynnal y tu allan yn ogystal â'r tu mewn?
  • Beth fydd rôl yr oedolyn?

Mae gan PACEY nifer o adnoddau ar gyfer aelodau mewn perthynas ag arsylwi, asesu a chynllunio.  Mae yna hefyd adnoddau hyfforddi byr o fewn CEY smart sy'n ddefnyddiol i chi ddeall y rôl sy'n rhaid i chi ei chwarae.

Darllen pellach

PACEY- Canllaw ymarfer, Ymagweddau at ddysgu

Canllaw ymarfer PACEY Chwarae a gychwynnir gan blant a gweithgareddau dan arweiniad oedolion

PACEY- Canllaw ymarfer, Arsylwi, asesu a chynllunio

Child Initiated Learning. Lindon 2010. Practical Pre-School Books.

Fframwaith Cyfnod Sylfaen Llywodraeth Cymru, 2015 

Addysgeg Dysgu ac Addysgu Llywodraeth Cymru, 2008

Dysgu drwy chwarae: Cryfhau dysgu drwy chwarae mewn rhaglenni addysg plentyndod cynnar. Unicef 2018 

Safonau Gofynnol Cenedlaethol ar gyfer Gofal Plant Rheoledig ar gyfer plant hyd at 12 oed